In Lilith: Queen of the Desert, Anya Kless says that Lilith is one of the few deities she associates with all four elements.
Personally, I’m inclined to believe that most deities have associations with all four elements — at least if we dig deeply enough into their lore — and that relatively few of them are truly specialized by element.
Many modern Pagans have a tendency, inherited from ceremonial magick (via Wicca), to pigeonhole almost all deities by element. Some Pagan Reconstructionists have criticized this tendency as a superficial oversimplification, as failing to appreciate the multi-faceted personalities of the Gods. I’m inclined to agree with that criticism.
Some gods really do seem to have a strong preponderance of one of the four elements. An example is Hephaestus, God of metalworking. Clearly He is associated primarily with fire. Another example is Hermes, who, as the God of communication and travel, is associated primarily with air.
But consider Prometheus. In the best-known myth about Prometheus, He steals fire from heaven and teaches humans to use it. Hence He is commonly associated with fire. But Prometheus’s name means “fore-thought” — the opposite of the impetuosity we normally associate with fire. And, in Prometheus Bound by Aeschlylus, Prometheus is described as having taught humans “all the arts” (i.e. all technologies) — not just those arts that directly involve fire. “The arts” in general require knowledge (air) and practical skill and discipline (earth). Insofar as there is any creativity involved, “the arts” also require intuition (water). There are also myths of Prometheus being an omniscient seer who refuses to tell the future but gives people hope instead, inspiring people to do the best they can to make the future as good as it can be. That myth isn’t easily classifiable by element, although, if you absolutely had to squeeze it into just one element, I suppose it would be air.
Prometheus is one of my primary deities, and, in my personal experience, I strongly associate Prometheus with all four elements.
Consider also Athena. As the Goddess of (among other things) wisdom, She is often associated with air. But She is also a Goddess of various crafts, such as pottery (which literally involves earth and fire), shipbuilding (water), weaving, leatherwork, and shoe-making. She is said to have introduced the plough (earth) and animal-taming. Much of Her wisdom is of a practical nature (earth). She is the Goddess of civilization, which exists primarily for practical economic reasons. She is also a Goddess of war (fire), especially military strategy, which is very multi-faceted, requiring knoweldge (air) of terrain (earth) and the psychology (water) of both your own and the enemy’s troops.
Consider also Hestia. As the Goddess of the hearth, She is often associated with fire. But She is also the Goddess of domesticity in general, which involves a lot more than just fire. Food preparation, for example, often involves water as well as fire. For those who believe in astrology, domesticity is associated with the fourth house, which corresponds to the sign of Cancer, a water sign. Hestia is also associated with stillness and stability (earth) — pretty much the opposite of “fiery.” So Hestia has strong associations with at least three of the four elements: fire, water, and earth. (She even has at least a minor association with air, insofar as the domestic arts, such as cooking, do require know-how.)
Even Hermes and Hephaestus have at least minor associations with other elements besides their primary element. For example, metalworking requires not just fire but also know-how (air) and metal ores extracted from the Earth. Hermes was associated with the domestication of animals, which involves all four elements. However, in the case of Hermes and Hephaestus, there is at least a very strong predominance of one of the four elements. Not so in the case of Prometheus, Athena, or Hestia, in my opinion.
Outside the Greek pantheon, one obviously very multi-faceted Goddess is Ishtar, said to be the Queen of Heaven and Earth, Goddess of love, Goddess of war, and a fertility Goddess, among other things. Clearly She can be associated with all four elements, although this page on a Pagan site pigeonholes Her as “Air” for whatever strange reason.
More generally, it seems to me that gods with a strong specialization in just one of the four elements are the exception rather than the rule. On this point I disagree with many Pagans, especially many Wicca-based and other ceremonial magick-based Pagans.
The ritual practices of many occultists and Wicca-based Pagans require that deities be pigeonholed by element, to determine altar placement and the direction one faces during the ritual.
I too associate directions with elements. But, with most deities, instead of pigeonholing the deities themselves, I think it would be more respectful to use the elements to symbolize different aspects of a given deity.
Many deities do have multiple names and epithets, some of which may be more element-specific than the totality of the deity’s character. Such names can be taken as representing element-specific aspects of that particular deity. Finding out these names/epithets/aspects in the first place may require quite a bit of digging into the lore, but I think this is necessary if one is going to interact with one’s deities in an element-specific way while still treating Them with respect as multi-faceted Beings.
In ritual, I would then suggest facing whichever direction corresponds to the element most relevant to the purpose of the ritual, but also, at some point during the ritual, turning to face the other directions and acknowledge other aspects of the deity one has called upon.
That’s what I do with Satan/Azazel. I strongly associate Satan/Azazel with all four elements while using other names to refer to His element-specific aspects: Leviathan or Ancient Serpent for water, Iblis for fire, Lucifer-Azazel for air, and Belial for earth.
Anyhow, I certainly agree with Anya Kless that Lilith can be associated with all four elements.